5/02/2009 11:16am, #141
What would you propose in terms of pure (or nearly pure) lipolysis, beyond/instead of what I'm currently doing?
The first thing that comes to my mind is physical activity:
-It may be that a negative calorie balance reached by increased caloric requirements is more lipolytic and less catabolic than one reached by reduced caloric intake, but I don't have enough knowledge of those processes to say so for sure.
-Even if the negative calorie balance is held equal and has the same catabolic effect, there is (or should be) a difference in anabolism between training vs detraining vs sedentary lifestyle, which may be enough to offset that catabolism entirely.
Goddamn, I wish I could be lifting right now. I'm going down to see the doctor today - I'll ask him to find out if a bout of symptoms indicate that I'm doing more damage/impairing recovery, or if symptoms are just symptoms. I can lift through a headache, but not the knowledge that I'm wrecking my brain.
What happens to nutrients while they're in the digestive tract is very important, but I'm thinking strictly in terms of the form they're in once they're across the intestinal wall and into the portal vein. Dietary fibers, resistant starches (and as shown by your example, resistant... non-starches? too) might not cross over at all, or they might cross in the form of fatty acids (I'm a bit fuzzy on that part). But to rephrase the question:
Does the portal vein, in normal operation, contain any carbohydrates in the form of polysaccharides?
I suspect the answer is no, but I could be wrong.
The latter actually makes a lot of sense.
RESULTS: Baseline leptin significantly predicted the development of obesity (p = 0.001)
and, after adjustment for BMI, development of glucose intolerance (p = 0.016) and insulin resistance (p < 0.0001).
For two people with equal BMIs (let's say they're the same height and weight, for simplicity's sake), the one with the higher level of leptin is likely to have the higher level of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.
And as previously noted, one can take "leptin" and replace it with "body fat", and the correlation still makes perfect sense. Unfortunately, though, it's a correlation that would conventionally be seen in the other direction, where high body fat (and thus leptin) is often the result of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.
Is saying "the result of" disingenuous? Yes, because there's evidence to suggest a vicious cycle between obesity and insulin resistance, rather than a strict cause-effect relationship (and the onset of leptin resistance may take part in that cycle). But the opposite inference suffers the same problem.
straight sucrose. Cane sugar and corn syrup just made it more accessible.
So I've been thinking about next weekend's carb load, and how to be, er, "scientific" about it. Since the stated purposes of the carb load are to drive up insulin without affecting insulin resistance, and to refill muscle and liver glycogen without "feeding" fat production, those would be the criteria it'd be nice to measure.
Theoretically, I might be able to do something re: insulin sensitivity by watching dose-response of carbohydrates as the load goes on, but I'm not at all confident in that. On the other hand, since I've seen quite a bit of research indicating that changes in muscle/liver glycogen are accompanied by proportional changes in intracellular fluid level (usually stated to be 1:2 to 1:3), which moves things into a measurable range.
There are confounding factors, of course. I think I've also read that maximal glycogen concentration can increase with training, and there's the constant difficulty of distinguishing fluid in one's muscles from fluid in one's digestive system. Regardless, though, it might be workable in a way that's initially more accurate than the "an experienced bodybuilder will feel the smoothing" approach.
5/02/2009 6:04pm, #142
In the case of Mauro's diet, I don't think cyclic carbo-loading is particularly useful relative to other equally effective, easier, less punitive methods.
It's unfortunate that you can't hit the gym at the moment. As you're well aware, weight training primes the muscles to store blood glucose as muscle cell glycogen, helps to reverse insulin resistance, &c. Hopefully you'll feel up to it soon.
... so consider sweet potatoes rather than, say, pizza/bread/pasta for your carb needs, whether during once-a-week loading or integrated with your daily diet.“Most people do not do, but take refuge in theory and talk, thinking that they will become good in this way” -- Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, II.4
5/02/2009 10:24pm, #143
5/03/2009 12:51am, #144
There were a few things bugging me about my food spreadsheet, particularly the effort involved in adding new days + foods to all the macronutrient sheets and the likelihood of errors incurred when reordering the food list. I've refactored it to minimize those problems, and it's looking pretty sharp.
I still haven't figured out how to do my body composition stats, though. The fact that the built-in line graph can't skip columns or specify the axis interval is a pain. I also can't figure out what I want to do with morning vs. evening measurements. I suppose that as long as I don't lose any data permanently, I can reorganize it as I see fit.
Also, I bought some rechargeable batteries today, so flash photography for the body composition shots is probably a go. That should solve the variation in lighting. Not sure what I'm going to do about the variation in posing, though - I suppose that once I go into the stages where I actually show changes in body composition, I could just pick pictures taken with similar posture, but it'd be nice to get more consistency in the mean time.
Right now, I'm not quite touching the wall behind me. I could go for uniformity by standing right up against it, with markers for my feet (already got these) and my hands (don't have these yet). On the other hand, having a wall to press up against may open the door to more error...
Edit: Speaking of error, I just took BIA scale measurements pre- and post-dump, and although the body weight measurement differed substantially, fat and muscle percentages only changed by a tenth of a percent.
5/03/2009 1:46pm, #145
We reached the point some time ago where our understanding of biology allowed us to see past the old energy in/energy out generalization that led most doctors to suggest starvation as a weight-loss strategy. Starvation leads to reduced mass, of course, but it's non-optimal for health and aesthetics.
The big insight -- I know you know this, but there are bystanders, so I'm going to spell it out -- is that we can, via non calorie-based dietary choices, turn off lipogenesis and activate lipolysis. Simply: without carbohydrates no fat will be produced, no matter how many calories are consumed, because lipogenesis requires blood glucose moderated hormonal activity (for general sub-cutaneous fat; excess fructose consumption causes belly fat deposition without a glucose spike).
The Ketogenic diet, Adkins, &c, are basically hacks that use the above observation as a blunt instrument. More recent research suggests that the benefits of these diets can also be had by restricting certain subsets of carbohydrates. Most popular theories as to why/which carbohydrates are better or worse for this purpose revolve around glycemic index, that blood sugar spikes imbalance and damage insulin metabolism, &c. The high/low-GI approach is a more nuanced view than the zero-carb guys had, but I still think it's too course. My suspicion is that we'll see more fine-grained findings over the next ten years, a preview of which can be found in ethnographic data for native populations, like the Kitavans:
The population is characterized by extreme leanness (despite food abundance), low blood pressure, low plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 activity, and rarity of cardiovascular disease. Tubers, fruit, fish, and coconut are dietary staples [ ... ]
Kitavans eat 2200 kcal/day, ~69% of their calories from carbs (mostly high-GI starchy tubers), ~21% fats, ~17% saturated fats and ~10% protein. If macronutrient ratios were what mattered, they should be a skinny-fat people, and exercise isn't the reason they're not -- they're a remarkably lazy group of indigenous people (about as active on average as Swedes). The answer is in what they don't eat. Grain. Sugar. Refined vegetable oils. (They also maintain an omega-6:omega-3 ratio of ~1:2).
Anyone who has eaten a Kitavan diet for a lifetime will be lean and healthy, but there's a catch for already overweight people: a cereal + sugar diet can do a number on the endocrine system, maybe to the extent that those with hyperinsulinemia/overweight must forgo high-GI carbs (perhaps for a year or two to reset the system, perhaps forever -- I know of no study that has investigated this question). That said, even those with blood sugar management issues do fine, and get/remain lean, eating slow carbs (<50 on GI tables, which are warty and imperfect but okay for this purpose if you don't want to use a meter).
Back around the original question: my recommendation, assuming you're in a hurry to re-compose your body, is a short term heavily carb restricted diet for aggressive lipolysis -- nothing will work faster. Longer term, and this applies to everyone, eat your high-GI carbs immediately after you train because this is when you'll receive the greatest benefits in terms of replenishing muscle cell glycogen, speeding recovery, stimulating IGF-1, &c. Don't let anyone sell you on chronic cardio for weight loss because HITT, plyometrics, &c., are better at priming the body for these biological processes. Whether training or not: dump cereals, sweets and processed vegetable oils; try to get your animal protein from fish/game/pasteured sources for optimal fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin profile (eat some organs, there's more to the beast than muscle tissue); make sure your protein intake is spread out over the day; don't be afraid of slow carbs, but try to get a big protein/fat meal before bed.
The best book I can recommend, though I disagree with the authors on several points, is The Paleo Diet for Athletes. You'd probably do best to skim the text and spend more time on the bibliography.“Most people do not do, but take refuge in theory and talk, thinking that they will become good in this way” -- Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, II.4
5/03/2009 3:06pm, #146
I understand you probably don't have time to hold my hand, and a lot of the stuff I've left out has been substantiated (I can dig up the links if anyone else wants to see them), but these are the areas that I haven't been able to find much - and it's not for lack of looking.
Afterword: I checked a Paleo Diet book out of the library a few months ago. I can't remember exactly what it was, but there was a groaner in the first chapter that was sufficiently bad for me to give up on it.
5/04/2009 4:19pm, #147
The pattern I see in the research is: team X observes that diabetic patients do better on low-GI carbs, speculates high-GI carbs might cause the problem; team Y tests healthy subjects, says no.
As for fat-soluble vitamins, it's just too big a can of worms to open here (and secondary to weight loss anyway). In terms of subsets of carbs: because Cordain is one of the main movers in the family of diets that are of interest to me, much of the research uses his diet. This one assigns one group a Paleo diet, the other group a "Mediterranean" one:
... the Paleo diet worked better by several measures, most importantly: weight loss and specific loss of belly fat, huge improvement in glucose tolerance, decrease in fasting glucose and an increase in insulin sensitivity. Note the difference in fasting glucose between the two groups at the end of the study. Take away: a non-calorie controlled diet that only limited certain carbs caused the metabolism to switch to a lipolytic mode running on fatty acid stores without hunger.
Here's an odd one (tiny N, short duration, only control is start vs end, &c) that's still worth a look on the basis of the remarkable change in insulin metabolism after 10 days:
... there are more like this latter one (bad design, small N, intriguing findings that I can't take entirely seriously) in terms of intervention studies. There is, to my mind, better info to be had through a survey of ethnographic data for healthy pre-agricultural societies, and -- especially -- migratory populations that experience dramatic health changes when exposed to sugar and flour. There are many of these out there, but much of the best data comes from between the world wars (when there were more transitional cultures to document) and can only be found on paper (lucky me, I've access to the research libraries of the New York system).
If you're interested in this sort of thing, the Tokelauans are a well documented late 20th century example about whom an entire book is available:
Also, the Pima indians make for an interesting case:
... they live on both sides of the US/Mexican border. The ones in the US have the world’s highest recorded prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes. The ones in Mexico are healthy. These reports are macronutrient obsessed, which leads them to focus on calories and fat content of the two diets, but it's probably worth noting that the Mexican Pima grow their own food (mostly vegetables and animal protein) while the US-resident ones eat a diet of processed junk foods and receive aid from the government in the form of white flour, sugar and vegetable oil.
This is going to be a hard week for me at work, so I'll not have time for much 'Shido. Hopefully this is clear enough to give you some starting points.“Most people do not do, but take refuge in theory and talk, thinking that they will become good in this way” -- Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, II.4
5/04/2009 10:04pm, #148
I suppose I should note that I don't have much use for nutritional anthropology. It's a big step in the wrong direction on the spectrum of hard vs. soft science.
5/05/2009 11:48pm, #149
Good news. My doctor twisted some arms, and I'm getting in to see an ophthalmologist in a few weeks. I'm going to make sure I've got my list of questions going in, too, including the following:
-Will weightlifting risk damaging my brain further or slowing/reducing recovery? If so, when will I be cleared to train again?
A nifty little tidbit from the biochemistry notes:
Hemoglobin is a four-protein structure that carries oxygen from the lungs to other places in the body. It does this by binding to oxygen molecules. Now, this binding is pH-sensitive - the more basic the environment, the stronger the hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen.
But if the hemoglobin's affinity gets too high, it won't be persuaded to release oxygen when it got to its destination, and therefore wouldn't be of much use. It just so happens that when muscles are using oxygen, they put out carbon dioxide (converted to bicarbonate, weak acid) - and when they're working really hard, they start putting out lactic acid. These chemicals drive the pH of the blood down (more acidic), causing the hemoglobin to give up that sweet, sweet oxygen more easily.
5/06/2009 7:44am, #150
- Join Date
- Feb 2007
*puts on noob hat* Haemoglobin production is extensively effected by your body's iron uptake; thus many a pubescent girl [esp. vegetarians] are hit with anaemia [lack of haemoglobin] due to the combination of shitty diet + bleeding. Signs of anaemia include discolouration [esp. lips; blue lips are a very prominent sign] and excessively pale skin.Lord Krishna said: I am terrible time the destroyer of all beings in all worlds, engaged to destroy all beings in this world; Of those heroic soldiers presently situated in the opposing army, even without you none will be spared.
Bhagavad Gita 11:32