Yes, thank you very much.
Yes, thank you very much.
Also in general it is unwise to look to professional bodybuilders for advice on training or nutrition unless they compete as a natural or they can point to something beyond anecdote to justify their claims.
The brain can get about two thirds of its energy needs from ketones. The other third needs to be from glucose. Unfortunately, it looks like most of my citations are offline right now:
-Survival of the Fattest, p.62 (not sure what they're citing)Quote:
Ketones seamlessly replace an inadequate supply of glucose to meet the brain's energy needs, but some glucose is still needed to supply at least one third of the brain's energy needs.
"Metabolic Effects of the Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood "Villains" of Human Metabolism"Quote:
The brain will use ketone bodies whenever provided with them (i.e., whenever blood ketone body levels rise). The blood-brain barrier transporter for ketone bodies is induced during starvation or very low carbohydrate intake, further promoting the flow of ketone bodies . This transporter has a Km that exceeds the concentrations of circulating ketone bodies that occur during starvation or very low carbohydrate intake, and a Vmax well in excess of energy demands . Therefore, ketone body delivery to brain will never be limited by this transporter. However, continued use of some glucose appears obligatory  and is supplied by way of hepatic gluconeogenesis.
Citation #6 from that review is "Nutrition and the Brain (John D Fernstrom and Madelyn H Fernstrom)."; I'm trying to get a copy. The whole article may be of some interest to you.
Anyways, some back-of-the-envelope math:
2000kcal/day for the body * 20% for the brain = 400 kcal/day for the brain
400kcal/day * 1/3 energy from glucose = 133kcal/day of glucose for the brain
133kcal glucose * 1/4 grams/kcal = about 33g glucose/day for the brain.
It's hard to get below that level from diet if you eat any sort of plant matter in quantity, and it is not an extreme load for gluconeogenesis.
Are 33g carbs enough to get you out of ketosis?
Assuming they ALL go to the brain and nowhere else.
If the total calories are low I think it could as a percentage of the total. Right?
1) how much Acetyl-CoA is produced by beta-oxidation of fatty acids, or
2) the rate that it is converted into citrate
Wikipedia seems to imply it's #1, in which case it would be proportional to the amount of fat your body is burning for fuel.
I have to think that if your brain is consuming nearly all the glucose that you're:
b) liberating from glycogen stores
c) creating from glycerol (triglyceride catabolism), and
d) creating from breaking down glucogenic amino acids
... then the rest of your body's energy is going to be coming from Acetyl-CoA one way or another.
At face value, the math makes sense - I guess my only question (and one I can't answer) would be how glucose actually gets distributed in your body in a ketogenic state. One would think that it might get preferentially distributed to the brain, but I also wonder how much your body tries to restore your depleted glycogen in such cases.
Also, I'm pretty sure the rate-limiting reaction for beta-oxidation is Acetyl-CoA production...though I have absolutely nothing to back that up at this point.
I must disagree
Genes play a LARGE roll in body types (truth) we got Ectomorphs, endomorhps, etc and everyone is a Mix of those types. Different workouts effect each differently
I will use my self as an example... (I am 19)
I had no care in the world for dieting and was pretty chubby. I noticed what path my body was taking and was like EW! so... I started a super strict way of eating, more water, vegetables, fruits, nuts, lean meat, juicing 2x a day... running, weight training
My body was changing week after week. I started burning baby fat and my body started getting a more "chiseled" look after 3 months. Energy is boosted, More ladies look at you. It was truly a facinating turn-around! Anyone can get a six-pack (unless you have some anti-six pack disease).
Here's what I did, (going chubby to lean):
Now there is no secret, only a lot of misconceptions... it is true! a six pack is made in the kitchen!
step 1: diet, diet , diet, water.
step 2: consistency and a will to never give up, people get discouraged because they don't see results in a week and stop, when they were doing the right thing.
step 3: find a friend to train with and it will boost your moral.
-Every morning wake up, drink a glass of water w/banana. jog and add in sprint intervals a totalt distance of 3-5 miles.
after I ran I would get this stuff called "ultimate meal" a powder that had essential vitamins, minerals, and herbs. No gmo, Vegan, great product!
Then the rest of the day is up to you...
Keep in mind of the "after burn effect" your body burns calories while rebuilding it self after a workout... to more after burn effect the BETTER. High intensity weight training (like crossfit) mixed with high intensity cardio.
I am 19 so maybe thats why I can burn fat so easily, but it's not hard.
I do have a six pack now, and a "V- shape"
Also keep in mind... a fighter and a fitness model eat differently and train differently, If you wan't to be a muscle magazine model then expect a different diet and workout.
I'll just chip in on the genetics side. I'm a skinny bastard who has a reasonable 6 pack even if I sit around and eat chocolate all day long. That said, I've always been active and I do do situps.
The male 6 pack is probably the equivalent of having a models figure for a woman. Some people have it naturally. Some people can work on it. For most of the world its something the media shove down our throats so they can make people feel shitty and sell us expensive diets and fitness fads.
But situps are good!
And lay off the sugary foods fatty.